Saturday, May 28, 2011

Figure-Ground Discrimination

Figure-Ground discrimination is the ability to distinguish an object, shape, word, or letter from the background in which it is embedded. Problems with figure-ground perception may impact the ability to attend to individual letters and words presented on a page full of sentences and paragraphs.

Visual Figure Ground Activities
-Hidden picture, word and shape worksheets (Highlights magazine, Where's Waldo Books, Hidden Picture Books)
-Locating various shapes in a room (refrigerator is a rectangle)
-Tracing through mazes
-Locating specific letters/shapes on a page. (Circle all of the E’s)
-Draw shapes superimposed on top of each other and instruct the student to “trace the triangle”
-Tracing or coloring named objects or shapes in a picture or diagram.
-Jigsaw puzzles with detailed backgrounds.
-Write the alphabet or words inside the squares of graph paper.

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Reference: Test of Visual Perceptual Skills

Saturday, May 21, 2011

Visual-Sequential Memory

Visual Sequential-Memory is the ability to remember and reproduce a sequence of words, symbols or sentences in the correct order. This skill is critical when learning to read and spell, and it also affects copying from the blackboard.
Visual Sequential-Memory Activities
-Make several worksheets with visual forms/numbers, words, or letters in a particular sequence (O S T C X) and let the child study the sheet. Have the child recreate the sequence. Gradually increase the number of items/forms
-Take blocks of various colors/sizes and put them in a specific order. Let the child study the pattern and then mix them up and have the child recreate the sequence.
-Do the same as above, but use various objects (pen, pencil, paperclip, etc.)
-Flash card sequencing games (found at school supply stores)
-Stringing sequences of beads of different colors and shapes after looking at an example then having the example removed.

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Reference: Test of Visual Perceptual Skills

Saturday, May 14, 2011

Visual Form-Constancy

Visual Form-Constancy is the ability to recognize, name, match, and remember objects or symbols by their details and characteristics. This is also the ability to recognize that a basic shape or form is the same no matter what size, configuration, color, or dimension that it is. Children with problems differentiating form-constancy typically have difficulty with academic learning because words, numbers, or symbols presented in one context may not be recognized when presented in a different manner.

Visual Form Constancy Activities
-Cut out various sizes and colors of shapes. Hold up one and have the child point to the ones that are the same
-Have the child locate a variety of geometrical shapes in a room (clock is a circle)
-Practice sorting, naming, and classifying various shapes and objects
-Moving into and out of named shapes drawn on the ground with sidewalk chalk
-Recognizing, matching, naming various shapes, objects with the vision occluded
-Identifying shapes, letters, or pictures, drawn on the back with a finger
-Recognizing shapes and forms in pictures (magazines, books)
-Filling in or coloring shapes/forms
-Copying shapes or forms using pegboard, parquetry, or block designs.
-Making shapes with toothpicks, straws, pipe cleaners

Reference: Test of Visual Perceptual Skills 

Sunday, May 8, 2011

Visual Discrimination

Visual Discrimination is the ability to appreciate the differences and similarities in shapes, forms, colors, patterns, sizes, shapes, positions and orientations. A child with visual discrimination problems has difficulty with noticing the differences/similarities in words, letters, pictures, forms and/or other objects. This can lead to problems in reading, writing, and spelling.

Visual Discrimination Activities
-Have the child sort of identify various objects with their vision occluded.
-Provide experiences in which the child sorts according to color, shape, size, etc.
-Make letters, shapes, forms, out of play dough, pipe cleaners, toothpicks, sand, shaving cream, fabric, sandpaper, and other sensory media.
-Reproduce designs using cubes, pegboards, construction toys and bead stringing.
-“Which one doesn’t belong” activities.
-Have the child look at a magazine page and circle all of the letter A’s, t’s, etc.
-Make worksheets that instruct the child to circle the matching letter
                           w – m n w m z
                    E – M  E  W  Z
-Have the child practice with hidden picture and hidden-word books such as "Where's Waldo?"

Tuesday, May 3, 2011

Visual Memory

Visual Memory is the ability to look at a shape, object, form, number, or letter and remember it. This is an important skill that is needed with all learning and is affected by attention, concentration, and observation skills. Children with poor visual memory usually have problems copying from the board to the paper.

Visual Memory Activities
-Copying a series of body movements as demonstrated by example.
-Moving to stand on different sheets of construction paper that are various colors, shapes, etc. Hold up a sample of which the child should move to, and then remove from his sight.
-Display objects, pictures, toys, colored blocks, etc. for a few seconds and then remove them all and have the child name them.
-Draw a letter, word, or shape and have the child duplicate it after it has been removed.
-Show a group of objects to the child for 3 to 8 seconds. Cover them and remove one and have the child name the one that was removed.
-“Memory” or “Concentration” Games
-Have the child look at a picture, then remove it and have her describe the details.

Reference: Test of Visual Perceptual Skills